Hudud al-'Alam, The Regions of the World
V. Minorsky

§ 50. Discourse on the Country of the Khazars [3]

East of it is a wall stretching between the mountains and the sea, and for the rest (dīgar) the sea and some parts of the river Ātil [sic]; south of it, the Sarīr; west of it, mountains; north of it, the B.rādhas and N.nd.r (*V.n.nd.r). This is a very pleasant and prosperous country with great riches. From it come cows, sheep, and innumerable slaves.

1. ĀTIL, a town divided by the river Ātil. It is the capital of the Khazars and the seat of the king, who is called Ṭarkhān Khāqān and

3. Nāḥiyat-i Khazarān.

162   Hudud al-Alam   §§ 50-3

is one of the descendants of Ansā (?). He lives with all his troops in the western half of the town which possesses a wall. In the other half live Muslims and idol-worshippers. This king has in this town seven governors (ḥākim) belonging to seven different creeds. At any hour (ba har sā'atī) when a more important litigation arises (chūn dāvarī buzurgtar uftadh), they ask the king for instructions (dastūrī), or inform him of the decision (taken) on that litigation.

2. SAMANDAR, a town on the sea-coast. It is a pleasant place, with markets and merchants.

3. *KHAMLĪKH ( ?), *BALANJAR (), BAYḌA, SĀVGHAR ( ?), KH.TL.GH, L.KN, SWR, MS..Ṭ (M.sq.t ?), towns of the Khazars, all with strong walls. The well-being (ni'mat) and wealth of the king (mlk, *malik or *mulk?) of the Khazars are mostly from the maritime customs (bāz-i daryā).

4. ṬŪLĀS, LŪGH.R ( ?), two regions of (az) the Khazar (country). The people are warlike and have great numbers of arms.

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