The Language of the Thracians, Ivan Duridanov

V. The Thracian vocabulary


The reconstructed (mainly from nouns and adjectives) 180 Thracian words, together with the 23 words, explicitly characterized as Thracian, is all we have from the Thracian language.

Here are listed these 180 reconstructed words:
( H = hydronym; RN = river name; VN = village name; PN = place name)

achel-water (noun), water (adj.)’ [Lith. H Akẽlė, Phryg. akala ‘water’].

aiz-a goat’ [Armen. aic, Greek aix].

ala current, stream’ [Latv. H Alaja, Lith. alė'ti ‘flooded’].

alta(s)current, stream’ [Illyrian RN Altus, Russ. (from Balt.) RN Alьta].

an(a)at, on’ [Avest. ana ‘along’, Greek aná ‘at, along’, Goth. ana ‘at, towards’].

ang- curved, twisting’ [Old-Ind. ancati ‘a curve’, Greek ankos ‘valley, abyss’].

ant(i)against’ [Old-Ind. ánti ‘against, nearby, the Lith. añt ‘towards, against’, Toch. ānt ‘through’, Greek antí ‘against’, etc.].

apa, aphus water, river; a spring’ [Old-Pruss. ape ‘river’, apus ‘spring’, Old-Ind. p- ‘water’].

apsaaspen’ [Altin apse ‘aspen’, Old-Pruss. abse, Pol. osa (from Proto-Slavic *apsā), Old-HighGerman aspa ‘aspen’].

armaswamp, bog’ [Lith. arma ‘bog, puddle’, armuõ, -eñs ‘the same’].

ars-to flow; current, river’ [Old-Pruss. RN Arsio, Arse, Old-Ind. árşati ‘to flow’, Hett. arš- ‘the same’].

arta(s), arda(s)current. river’ [Old-Ind. árdati ‘to flow’, Greek ardō ‘to bedew’].

arzaswhite’ [Greek argós ‘white’, Toch. A ārki-, B rkwi- ‘white’, Hett. kar-ki-is ‘white’].

asa(s)stone’, as(a)mstony’ [Old-Ind. as’man ‘stone; heaven’, Avest. asman- ‘the same’, Pelasg. asáminthos (stone) bath’, Lith. akmuõ, -eñs ‘stone’].

atat, towards’ [Latv. ad ‘at, towards’, Old-Icel. at ‘at, opposite to’].

ath-high, steep coast, a hill’ [Greek aktē ‘steep coast, peninsula, cape’].

at(u) current, stream’ [Latv. RN Adula, German Attel, Avest. adu- ‘current, stream, channel’].

bebrusbeaver’ [Lith. bebrus ‘beaver’, Old-Pruss. bēbrus, Bulg. VN Bebrovo, Old-HighGerman bibar, etc.].

bend-to bind’ [Old-Ind. bándhana- ‘binding’, Avest. bandayaiti ‘to bind’, Goth, Anglo-Saxon bindan, German binden ‘to bind’].

berasbrown, swarthy’ [Lith. bė'ras ‘brown’, Latv. bẽrs ‘the same’, Old-HighGerman bero ‘a bear’ (initially ‘brown’)].

berga(s)hill, bank’ [Old-Icel. berg ‘mountain’, Old-HighGerman berg, German Berg ‘mountain’, Old-Bulg. bregə, New-Bulg. brjag ‘bank, coast’].

berza(s)birch’ [Lith. béržas, Latv. bẽrzs, dial. bêrza, Old-Pruss. berse, Russ. berëza, Bulg. breza ‘birch’].

bredaspasture-ground’ [Russ. bred, bredina ‘pasture’, bresti, bredu ‘to cross by a ford’, Balt. (Zhemait.) RN Bred-upja].

brentas (brendas) ‘deer’ [Messap. bréndon ‘deer’].

brink-to swell’ [Lith. brìnkti [brìnkstu) ‘to swell’, Pol. na-brekac' ‘the same’].

bruzasquick’ [Lith. brùžas ‘somebody who runs to and fro’, the Slavic *bərzə, Bulg. brəz].

bur, buris (boris) ‘man’ [Alb. burrë ‘man’].

burt- (burd-)  ‘a ford’ [Slavic *brodə, Bulg. brod ‘a ford’].

būzasa goat’ [Avest. būza- ‘a goat’].

chalasmud’ [Old-Bulg. kalə, New-Bulg. kal ‘mud’, Czech kal ‘swamp; mud, soft soil’].

damasettlement, place for settling’ [Old-Ind. dhāman- ‘place for dwelling’, Greek thaimós ‘house’].

daphasa flood’ [Lith. dãpas ‘a flood’, Norw. dial. dave ‘puddle, pool’].

darsas (dersas) ‘brave, courageous’ [Old-Pruss. dyrsos (pl.) ‘able, brave’, Avest. daršyu- ‘brave, strong’].

datan (datas) ‘place, settlement’ [Alb. datë ‘place, settlement].

dentu-clan, tribe’ [Latv. gens ‘clan, tribe’].

desa(s), disa(s)deity, god’ [Greek théos ‘god’].

dingafertile  ground’ [Latv. dinga ‘fertile place’,  Old-Icel. dyngia ‘dunghill’].

dizafortress’ [Avest. uz-daēza ‘a heaping, a fortification’, Old-Pers. didā, New-Pers. diz, dēz ‘fortress’].

dōnplace, country(side)’ [Old-Ir. , Gen. don ‘place, country(side)’, Greek chthōn ‘soil, land’].

drenisdeer’ [Alb. Geg dre, dreni ‘deer’].

dumasdark’ [Lith. dū'mas ‘dark, dark brown (for cattle)’, Latv. dms ‘dark brown’].

dūn-hill, mountain’ [Anglo-Saxon ‘dūn hill, mountain’, German Düne ‘dune’].

e(i)b-to flow, to drip’ [Pelasg. eibō ‘to drip, to flow (out)’].

ermasfierce, mad’ [Alb. jerm ‘furious, mad’].

esvas (ezvas) ‘horse’ [Old-Ind. ás’va-h ‘horse’, Avest. aspa- ‘the same’, Latin equus, etc.].

gaidrusbright, clear’ [Lith. gaidrùs ‘bright, clear (cloudless)’, Greek phaidrós ‘shining, bright, cheerful’].

gava(s) county, countryside’ [Goth. gawi ‘county’, pre-Greek gaia, Att. gē ‘land, region’].

germaswarm, hot’ [Old-Ind. gharmá- ‘heat’, Armen. ĵerm ’warm’, Greek thermós ‘the same’].

gesastork kingfisher’ [Old-Pruss. geeyse ‘kingfisher’, Latv. dzēse ‘heron, kingfisher’].

gin-to languish, to spoil, to dry out’ [Old-Kurian Ginulle (a stream), Latv. g'nins ‘to spoil, to languish’].

haimos (-on), *saimas (-an)ridge, mountain chain’ [Old-Ind. simán- ‘ridge, boundary’, Irish sīm ‘chain’].

ida (ide) ‘tree; forest’ [Old-Ir. fid, Gen. fedo ‘tree, trees, forest’].

iet(e)r (=jeter-) ‘quick, agile’ [Old-HighGerman ātar ‘quick’, Latv. ãtrs ‘quick’].

īl(u)-silt, mud’ [Greek īlys, -ýos ‘mud, silt’, Church Slavic ilə ‘the same’].

iūras (=jūras) ‘water, river’ [Lith. jū'ra ‘a sea’, Old-Nord. ūr ‘drizzle’].

kaba(s)bog, swamp’ [Engl. quab].

kalasdistrict, border region’ [Lith. gãlas ‘end, border of a field, meadow or forest’, Latv. gals ‘neighbourhood’].

kalsasdry, dried up’ [Latv. kálst (-stu, -tu) ‘to dry up, to wither’].

kapashill, slope’ [Latv. kãpa, kape ‘long mountain strip, dune, slope’, Lith. kopà ‘and hill, dune’].

kel(l)aa spring’ [Old-HighGerman quella, German Quelle ‘a spring’].

kenthasa child, descendant’ [Latv. re-cens ‘fresh, young, new’, with another suffix in the New-Bulg chedo ‘a child’].

kersasblack’ [Lith. kéršas ‘on black and white spots’, Bulg. cheren ‘black’, Old-Ind. krsná ‘black, dark’].

ketri-, ketre-four’ [Greek tetra ‘four’, Cymr. pedry- ‘four-fold’, Lith. keturì, Latv. četri, Bulg. četiri ‘four’].

kik-live, agile’ [Anglo-Saxon cwicu, Old-Nord. kvikr, kykr ‘live, agile’, Engl. quick].

kiri- [or kira] ‘mountain’, ‘forest’ [Old-Ind. girí-h ‘mountain’, Avest. gairi- ‘the same’, Lith. girià, gìre ‘forest, wood’. Latv. dzia ‘forest’].

knisa(s)eroded place’ [Lith. knìsti ‘to dig’].

kupselaa heap, a hillock’ [Lith. kupsẽlis ‘heap, hillock’].

kurp-to burrow’ [Lith. kur̃pti (-) ‘to burrow’, Russ. korpat’ ‘to burrow’].

kurtagroove, wood’ [Old-Pruss. korto ‘groove’ from the Baltic *kurtā].

laza (-as) ‘clearing (in forest), glade’ [Serbo-Croat läz ‘clearing’, Russ. laz ‘animal pathway to a river (lake)’, lazina ‘clearing’].

lingasdepression, meadow’ [Lith. lénge ‘low land’, PN Linge, Bulg. longə ‘meadow’].

mar-water, river, bog’ [Anglo-Saxon merisc ‘swamp’, Old-Icel. mørr ‘swampy country’].

markabog; swampy country’ [Lith. markà ‘a pit for steeping flax or hemp’, Ukrain. morokva ‘bog’].

melda(s)marshy reed’ [Lith. meldà, méldas ‘marsh reed’, Latv. meldi ‘reed’, Old-HighGerman melta].

mēr-large, great’ [Church Slavic personal name Vladi-merə, Old-HighGerman Volk-mār, Hlodo-mār, Old-Icel. mār ‘big’].

mezēnaa horseman’ [Alb. mes, mezi ‘stallion’, Roman. (substrat) mînz ‘stallion’].

mukaseed, clan, posterity’ [Iran. muka- in the Osset. mugæ ‘family’, muggag ‘seed, clan’].

mukasswampy country, a bog’ [Latv. muka ‘swamp, where one can sink’, mukls ‘swampy’, Lith. RN M].

musasmoss, mould’ [Old-HighGerman, Anglo-Saxon mos ‘moss, swamp’, German Moss ‘moss’, Church-Slav. məhə ‘moss’, Lith. musai, pl. ‘mould on yoghourt’].

nest-rumbling, roaring’ [Old-Ind. nádati ‘to rumlble, to roar’, nadi- ‘river, current’].

ōstas river mouth’ [Lith. úostas, uostà ‘river mouth; a port’, Latv. uosts-, uosta ‘the same’, Latin ōstium ‘river mouth’, Old-Bulg. uostije ‘the same’].

pa(i)vischild, son’ [Greek Homer pavis, Att. paus, pais].

paisa(s) soot’ [Lith. paišai ‘soot’].

palaswamp, bog’ [Lith. pãlios, pl. ‘big swamp. bog’, Latv. paas, pai ‘swampy banks of a lake’, Latin palus ‘lake’].

palmaswamp, bog’ [from pala with the suffix -].

pan(i)swamp, quagmire, peat-bog’ [Old-Pruss. pannean ‘quagmire’, Goth. fani ‘silt’, etc.].

para, pharasettlement, village’ [from the IE *(s)porā as ‘village’].

pauta(s)foam’ or ‘foaming’ [Old-Pruss. RN Pauta, Lith. putà ‘foam’, putóti ‘to foam’, Latv. putas ‘foam’].

perboy, son’ [Lat. puer ‘child, boy, son’].

per(u)-a rock’ [Hett. peruna- ‘a rock’, Old-Ind. párvata- ‘mountain’].

pēs boy, child’ [Greek paus, pais ‘child’, Cypr. pas ‘the same’].

piza(s)bog, meadow’ [Latv. pīsa ‘deep swamp’, Greek pīsea, pl. ‘damp places, meadow’].

pras- (resp. *praus-) ‘to wash, to splash, to bedew’ [Lith. praũsti ‘to wash, to sprinkle’, Latv. prauslat ’to splash, to besprinkle’, Old-Ind. prusnō'ti ‘to splash’].

puis, pus, pyschild, son’ [-pu(i)s = Greek Att. paus ‘child, son’].

pupabeans’ or ‘hill’ (?) [Lith. pupà ‘beans’ or Alb. pupë ‘hill’].

pura-maize, spelt’ [Greek pyrós ‘maize’, Lith. pūrai ‘winter maize’, Church Slavic pəiro ‘spelt’].

purdaswampy, damp place’ [Latv. purdui ‘a snivel’, Greek pardakos ‘damp, wet’].

puris, poris, por, pyris, pyros, pyrson, boy’ [Latin pure ‘child, boy, son’ in Latin PN Marci-por, Nae-por, Ōli-por, Etr. nei-pur, naei-purs].

pus, pyschild, son’ - see puis.

pusinasspruce forest, pine forest’ [Lith. pušýnas ‘spruce forest’ from pušìs ‘pine, spruce’].

putrasbawler, squaller, babbler’ [Old-Latv. personal name Putre, Latv. putruôt, putrât ‘to cry, to speak fast’].

raimasmotley’ [Lith. ráimas ‘motley, particoloured’].

raka(s) ‘eroded place, a gully’ [Lith. ràkti ‘to burrow’].

ramusquiet, calm’ [Lith. ramùs ‘quiet’, Old-Ind. rámate ‘to stay quiet, to rest’].

raskusquick, agile, live’ [Old-HighGerman rasc ‘quick’, German rasch ‘the same’, Engl. rash].

rerastones, stony ground’ (from an earlier *lera) [Alb. lerë, -a ‘stones, fallen stones’].

rēzas (resas) ‘king’ [Latin rex ‘king’, Old-Ind. raj- ‘the same’].

ring- (rink-) ‘quick, skillful’ [Old-HighGerman (ge)-ringi ‘light’, Middle-German ge-ringi ‘light. quick’, Greek rhimpha  ‘quickly, skillfully’].

rudasred, reddish’ [Lith. RN Rùd-upė, adj. rùdas ‘(red-) brown, reddish’, Latv. ruds ‘reddish’].

rumba(s)edge; rapids’ [Lith. rum̃bas ‘periphery’, Latv. rum̃ba ‘waterfall, rapids’].

rūs-a (-as, -is) ‘a pit’ or rus-slowly flowing’ [Old-Pruss. PN Russe (a village and a swamp), Lith. rūsỹs (and rúsas) ‘potatoe’s pit; hut’, Latv. rūsa ‘pit; or the Litv. rusė'ti ‘to flow slowly’].

sabazias free’ [Old-Bulg. svobodь ‘free’].

saldas (instead of *zaldas) ‘golden’ [Old-Bulg. zlato (from the Proto-Slavic *zǎltǎ) ‘gold (noun)’ , New-Bulg. zlato ‘gold’, zlaten ‘golden’].

saracurrent, stream’ [Old-Ind. sarā' ‘river, stream’].

sartaslight-red’ [Lith. sar̃tas ‘light-red (for horses)’, Latv. sarts ‘red’].

satras (satrus) ‘live, quick, agile’ (?) [Lith. šatrùs ‘live, quick, agile, row’].

saut-is (-as) ‘lazy’ [Latv. sautis ‘lazy man, who sleeps all the time’].

sei(e)tuvadeep place in the river’ [Lith. sietuvà ‘deep place in the river’].

seina(s)village, settlement’ [Armen. šēn, Gen. sini ‘village’, Greek Rhod. kroina ‘residence’].

sēkasgrass, greenery; hay’ [Lith. šė'kas ‘recently mowed down grass’, Old-Ind. s'āka- ‘vegetable’].

sem(e)la (= zeml’a) ‘land, earth’ [Old-Bulg. zemlja, Russ. zemlja, Lith. zeme, Latv. zeme].

serma, sermascurrent, stream’ [Old-Ind. sárma-h ‘current’, Lith. RN Sérmas].

siltaswarm, pleasant’ [Lith. šitas ‘warm, pleasant’, Latv. sìlts ‘warm’, Cymr. clyd ‘warm, warming’].

sind(u)-river’ [Old-Ind. sindhu- ‘river’, Old-Pers. hindus ‘the same’].

singaslow land, depression’ [Goth. sigqan, Old-HighGerman sinkan, German sinken ‘to sink, to collapse’].

skaivasleft’ [Greek skaiós ‘left’, Latin scaevus ‘the same’].

skalp-to beetle, to hit’ [Lith. skabti (-biù, -biaũ) ‘to beetle, to dolly (for laundry)’].

skaplisaxe’ [Lith. skãplis ‘axe’].

skapt-to dig’ [Lith. skaptúoti ‘to cut, to carve (in wood)’, Greek skápto ‘to dig’].

skaras (-is) ‘quick’ [Old-Bulg. skorə, Russ. skorəj ‘quick’, etc. (Proto-Slavic *skarə)].

skarsastransverse, slanting’ [the Greek en-kársios, epi-kársis ‘curved, bent, transverse’, Lith. sker̃sas ‘transverse, oblique].

skilasquick, impetuous’ [Lith. skìlti ‘set fire’ and ‘run mad’]

skretacircle, circumference’ [Lith. skretė' ‘a (round) disk’, skrìtė ‘circumference’].

skumbr-as (or -is) ‘hill, mountain’ [Lith. kumbrỹs, kum̃bris ‘hillock, hill, mountain peak, small mountain’].

spinda(s)clearing (in the forest)’ [Lith spiñdis ‘clearing in the forest’].

stra (from an earlier *strava) ‘current, torrent’ [Lith. sravà ‘current’, Latv. strava ‘current, torrent’].

strambasstubble-field’ [Old-Pruss. strambo ‘stubble-field’, the Latv. strùobs ‘a spray, a stem, a straw’ ].

strumā, strumōncurrent, river’ [Old-HighGerman stroum, German Strom ‘current’ river’, Lith. sraumuõ, -eñs ‘fast current’, srūti (srūvù, dial. srūnù) ‘to fill with water’ and ‘to flow, to outflow the banks (for a river)’].

strūnacurrent, river’ [Lith. sriti ‘to fill with water, to outflow’].

stur(ia)country, countryside’ [Old-Bulg strana (Proto-Slavic *stǎrnā) ‘country’, Bulg. pro-stor ‘expanse, space’].

suchis, sukis, suku(s) (-os) ‘girl’, resp. ‘boy, juvenile’ [Cymr. hogen ‘girl’, hogyn ‘boy, lad’, Lith. sūnùs ‘son’, Old-Bulg. səin ‘son’, etc.].

sukaa crack, a gorge, a pass’, [Lith. šùkė ‘a gap, a crack’].

sulagroove’ [Greek hýle ‘forest, groove’].

sunkasap, fluid’ [Lith. sunkà ‘sap (of a tree); fluid’].

sura (zura) ‘current, stream’ [Old-Ind. sirā' ‘current. stream’].

surasstrong, brave; a hero’ [Old-Ind. sū'ra-h ‘a hero, a warrior’, Avest. sū'ra- ‘brave, courageous; a hero’].

surassalty, bitter’ [Lith. sū'ras ‘salty’, Latv. sũrs ‘salty, bitter, sour’].

svit- to shine, to twinkle’ [Lith. švitė'ti ‘to shine, to twinkle’, Old-Bulg. svьteti sia) ‘to shine’].

tarpas, terpasa gap, a crack’ [Lith. tárpas, térpь ‘an interstice, a crack’, Proto-Slavic *tarpə ‘a pit, a ditch’].

taru-spear’ [Greek dóry ‘tree’ and ‘spear’, Hett. ta-ru- ‘tree, trees’, Old-Ind. dáru- ‘tree’].

thin-to hold, to carry’ [Latin teneō, -ere ‘to hold’].

thurd-to crash, to collapse’ [Old-HighGerman sturzen, German stürzen ‘to overthrow, to fall’].

tirsasthicket’ [Lith. tir̃štis ‘density, thickness’ and ‘thicket, brush-wood’, tir̃šti (tir̃štù) ‘to thicken’].

tithalight, radiance’ [Greek titō' ‘morning glow; morning, day’, Alb. ditë ‘day’].

tranasrotting’ [Lith. RN Tranỹs, trenė'ti ‘to rot, to decompose’].

traus-to break, to crumble’ [Lith. traušti ‘to break, to crumble’, traũšus ‘brittle’, the Latv. trauss, trausis ‘brittle, fragile’, Old-Russ. trohə ‘lazy; sad’].

tund- 1. ‘to push, to knock’; 2. ‘river’ [1. Latin tundō, -ere ‘to push, to knock’, Old-Ind. tundatē ‘to push’. 2. Old-Icel. þund ‘river’].

tuntasa flock, a flight; a heap’ [Lith. tuñtas ‘a flock, a flight; a heap, a pile’].

turm-a run, a flight’ [Old-Ind. drámati ‘to run’, Greek drómos ‘a run’].

udra(s)otter’ [Old-Ind. udrá-h ‘water animal’, Avest. udra- ‘otter’, Greek hy’dros, Old-HighGerman ottar, Lith. údra, Bulg. vidra ‘otter’].

udrēnaswater, aquatic’ [Greek hydrinós ‘referring to water, water’, án-ydros ‘waterless’].

ūkasmist; misty, turbid’ [Lith. kas ‘a mist; clouding; fume, vapour’, ū'kanas ‘cloudy, turbid’].

upariver’ [Lith. ùpė ‘river’, Latv. upe ‘river, stream’].

urda(s)stream’ [Lith. urdulỹs ‘(mountain) stream, pool’, Latv. urdaviņa ‘stream’].

usku-water; aquatic, marshy’ [Old-Ir. u(i)sce ‘water’, Old-Cymr uisc, Irish esc ‘water, bog, swamp’].

ut- water, river’ [Old-Ind. ud-án- ‘water’, Greek hydos ‘the same’].

vair-as (-us) ‘spinning’ [Lith. vairùs, vairas ‘spinning’, Swed. vīrr ‘a spiral’].

varpasaswhirlpool’ [Latv. vārpats ‘whirlpool’, the Lith. varpýti (-pau, -piau) ‘to dig, to burrow’].

veger- (resp. *veker-) ‘damp; to bedew’ or ‘haymowing’ [Dutch wak ‘damp’, Latv. vedzere etc.].

veleka(s)place for washing’ [Lith. velkles ‘a place, used for washing’, velė'ti ‘to wash (with a paddle)’].

ver- to spring, to issue’ [Lith. vírti (vérdu, viriaũ) ‘to boil, to bubble’, the Old-Bulg. vьreti vьrion ‘to spring, to boil’].

verza(s)a barrier used for fishing; dam’ [Latv. varza ‘dam’].

zbel- (from an initial *zibel-) ‘shining; a thunderbolt, a lightning’ [Latv. zibele ‘shining’, zibelêt ‘to flash, to twinkle, to shine’].

zburul-light (noun); shining’ [Lith. žiburỹs ‘light’ (noun)’].

zelmisan offspring, descendant’ [Lith. želmuõ, -eñs ‘plant’ and ‘an offspring’].

zenis, zenēsborn, born in’ [=genes in the Greek personal name of Dio-génes, from the IE *gen’- ‘to give birth’ in the Old-Latin geno ‘to produce, to give birth’].

zēri- (from an earlier *zvēri-) ‘an animal, a beast’ [Lith. žvėris ‘a beast’, Old-Bulg. zverə ‘the same’, Greek thēr].

zi-god’ [shortened from ziu-, zia- and similar, Greek Zeus].

zilasgrey,  turned grey’ or ‘blue’ [Lith. žìlas ‘grey-haired’, Latv. zils, zilš ‘blue’].

zilma(s) greenery’ [Latv. zelme ‘green grass or wheat’].

zum-, zuml-dragon’ [Old-Bulg zmьi ‘dragon’, zmьia ‘snake’].

zvaka(s)bright, white’ [Lith. žvãkė ‘light (noun)’].

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