<!doctype html public "-//w3c//dtd html 4.0 transitional//en"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=unicode"> <meta name="Author" content="Vassil Karloukovski"> <meta name="GENERATOR" content="Microsoft FrontPage 5.0"> <meta name="ProgId" content="FrontPage.Editor.Document"> <title>O. Maenchen-Helfen - The Language of the Huns - 9</title> </head> <body> <font face="Palatino Linotype"> <b><font size="4">The World of the Huns. <i>Chapter IX. Language</i></font></b><font size="4"> <br></font><b>O. Maenchen-Helfen</b> <br>&nbsp; </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><b>9. </b><a href="#A.">Kamos and medos</a>&nbsp;  &nbsp; <a href="#B.">Strava</a>&nbsp;  &nbsp; <a href="#C.">Cucurun</a> <br>&nbsp; </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="A."></a><b>A.&nbsp;<img SRC="424_3.jpg" height=20 width=56 align=ABSBOTTOM> and&nbsp;</b><img SRC="424_4.jpg" height=20 width=49 align=ABSBOTTOM> </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype">"In the villages," wrote Priscus (<i>EL</i> 131<sub>11-15</sub>), "we were supplied with food  millet instead of corn  and <i>medos</i> as the natives call it. The attendants who followed us received millet and a drink of barley, which the barbarians call&nbsp;<img SRC="424_5.jpg" height=20 width=53 align=ABSBOTTOM>." </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><img SRC="line_down.gif" height=18 width=596> <br>&nbsp;425 </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype">As is known from Julius Africanus' <i>Embroideries</i> and Diocletian's <i>Edictum de Pretiis</i>, <a href="#444.">[444]</a> the Pannonians drank <i>kamos</i> (<i>kamum</i>) long before Attila. The word is Indo-European. <a href="#445.">[445]</a> Vmbry&#39;s Turkish etymology <i>kamos</i> = <i>qymyz</i>, followed by Dieterich, <a href="#446.">[446]</a> Parker, <a href="#447.">[447]</a> and, for a while, Altheim, <a href="#448.">[448]</a> is to be rejected, -<i>os</i> is the Greek ending, <i>kam</i>- is not <i>qymyz</i>, and <i>qymyz</i> is a drink made of milk, not of barley. <i>Medos</i>, too, is Indo-European, either Germanic <a href="#449.">[449]</a> or Illyric. <a href="#450.">[450]</a> <br>&nbsp; </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="B."></a><b>B. STRAVA</b> <br>&nbsp; </font> <blockquote><font face="Palatino Linotype">"When the Huns had mourned him [Attila] with such lamentations, a <i>strava</i>, as they call it, was celebrated over his tomb with great revelling" (<i>Getica</i> 258).</font></blockquote> <font face="Palatino Linotype">Jacob Grimm <a href="#451.">[451]</a> drew attention to Lactantius Placidus' scholion on Statius: "Pile of hostile spoils: from the spoils of enemies was heaped up the pyre for dead kings. This rite of burial is said to be observed even today by the barbarians, who call the piles 'strabae' in their own language" (<i>exuviarum hostilium moles: Exuviis enim hostium exstruebatur regibus mortuis pyra, quern ritum sepulturae hodieque barbari servare dicuntur, quae strabas dicunt lingua sua</i>), (Thebais XII, 64). The passage would be of great importance if it actually were written in the fourth century, the date of the scholion. However, <i>quae strabas dicunt lingua sua</i> is a marginal note which slipped into the text, penned by a man who knew his Jordanes. <a href="#452.">[452]</a> </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype">The initial consonant cluster precludes the Turkish etymology offered by B. von Arnim. <a href="#453.">[453]</a> Grimm reconstructed from Gothic <i>straujan</i>, "to strew," *<i>stravida, das auf dem Hgel errichtete, aufgestellte gerste, eine streu, wenn man will ein bette </i>(<i>lectisternium</i>). Since then this etymology has been </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><img SRC="line_down.gif" height=18 width=596> <br>&nbsp;426 </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype">repeated <a href="#454.">[454]</a> so often that to doubt it is by now almost a sacrilege. How exactly "to strew" acquired the meaning "funeral feast"  for that is the meaning of <i>strava</i>, not <i>Streu</i> or <i>Bett</i>  remained obscure. Starting with "to strew" some authors arrived at "funeral feast" via "to heap > pyre > "to make a bed for the dead"; others associated strewing with strewing sacrificial gifts for the dead > honoring the dead > funeral. They would have found a way to connect <i>straujan</i> with <i>strava</i> even if it should have meant coffin, tombstone, or quarreling heirs. Actually, no Germanic language exists in which a word derived from "to strew" means <i>cena funeraria</i>. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype">There remains the Slavic etymology. <i>Le festin qui suivait la tryzna</i> <a href="#455.">[455]</a> <i>s'appellait pirum ou strava. Strava est slave; le mot est employ de nos jours encore au sens de &quot;nourriture,&quot; et on le trouve dans les documents vieux-tchques et vieux-polonais de XIVe et XVe sicles avec la signification spcial de &quot;banquet funbre.</i>" <a href="#456.">[456]</a> Vasmer and Schwarz <a href="#457.">[457]</a> objected to this etymology in that in Jordanes' time the word for "food" must have been <i>s<sup>u</sup>trava</i> and therefore could not have been rendered as <i>Strava</i>. This cannot be taken seriously. Should Priscus have written s traba? Besides, Popovi proved, <a href="#458.">[458]</a> to my mind convincingly, that the form <i>strava</i> could have existed side by side with <i>s<sup>u</sup>trava</i>. <a href="#459.">[459]</a> Occasionally and under special circumstances foreign words were borrowed for an old, native burial custom. <a href="#460.">[460]</a> But it is most unlikely that the Huns turned to Slavs for a term to designate what was doubtless a Hunnic custom. One of Priscus' or Jordanes' informants seems to have been a Slav. Knowing neither Hunnic nor Slavic, Priscus or Jordanes could have taken <i>strava</i> for a Hunnic word. <a href="#461.">[461]</a> </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><img SRC="line_down.gif" height=18 width=596> <br>&nbsp;427 <br>&nbsp; </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="C."></a><b>C. CUCURUN</b> </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype">Hubschmid takes Middle Greek&nbsp;<img SRC="427_1.jpg" height=19 width=88 align=ABSBOTTOM>, Middle Latin <i>cucarum</i>, and Old English cocer, "quiver," to be a loanword from Hunnish. <a href="#462.">[462]</a> He adduces numerous similar sounding Mongolian and Turkish words for leather bottle, bow, and container, though none which means "quiver." Hubschmid finds this in no way surprising for, as he asserts, after the beginning of the nineteenth century quivers were no longer used. He is mistaken. Not only is <i>sadaq</i> still the common Turkish word for quiver, as it has been for centuries, the Kirghiz shot whith bows and arrows until the 1870's and in the Altai guns displaced the bow only about 1890, in some remote valleys even later. In 1929, I saw Tuvans carry bows and quivers full of arrows at ceremonial shooting contests. If <i>cocer</i> and so forth were of Altaic origin, it would be Avaric rather than Hunnish. <br>&nbsp; </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype">[<a href="mh_8.html">Previous</a>] [<a href="mh_10.html">Next</a>] <br>[<a href="index.html">Back to Index</a>] <br> </font> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="444."></a><b>444.</b> <i>Thesaurus linguae latinae s.v.</i> camum; <i>Bulletin Du Gange</i> 11, 1937, 39. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="445."></a><b>445.</b> Holder, 1896, 1, 728; Ernest Schwarz,<i> Mitteilungen des sterreichischen Instituts fr Geschichtsforschung</i> 43, 1929, 210; J. Harmatta, <i>AAH</i> 2, 1952, 343. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="446."></a><b>446.</b> <i> Byzantinische Quellen zur Lnder und Vlkerkunde</i> 2 (Leipzig, 1912), 139. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="447."></a><b>447.</b> <i>A Thousand Years of the Tartars</i> (London, 1924) 136. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="448."></a><b>448.</b> 1951, 209, n. 20 (and Altheim and Stiehl 1953, 85 f.), vigorously rejected my objections to this etymology. In <i>Geschichte</i> 4, 59, Altheim dropped it. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="449."></a><b>449.</b> M. Vasmer, <i>Zeitschr. f. slav. Philologie</i> 2, 1925, 540. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="450."></a><b>450.</b> Cf. B. Zstrov in <i>Vznik po</i></font><i> <font face="Palatino Linotype">atku slovano</font></i><font face="Palatino Linotype"> 5 (Prague, 1966), 40. The Turkish word for <i>liquor ex milio el aqua</i> was <i>boza</i>, J. Nmeth, <i>Abh. Ak. Wiss.</i> 1958, 4; 1959, 17. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="451."></a><b>451.</b> <i>Kleine Schriften</i> 3, 135. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="452."></a><b>452.</b> Cf. R. Landi, "Strava," <i>Bulletin Du Gange</i> 5, 1950, 50-51; Woestijne 1950, 149-169. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="453."></a><b>453.</b> Arnim 1936, 100-109. H. Jacobsohn (<i>Anz. f. DA</i> 42, 1923, 88) thought <i>strava</i> might be Scythian. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="454."></a><b>454.</b> <i>E.g.</i>, Leicher 1927, 10-19; E. Roth, &quot;Gotisch Strawa, Gerst, Paradebett,&quot; <i>Annales Acad. Scient. Fennicae</i>, ser. B, 84, 1954, 37-52; W. Pfeifer, "Germanisch Straujan," <i>PBB</i> 82, 1960, 132-145. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="455."></a><b>455.</b> <i>La tryzna n&#39;tait pas un simple festin, mais line fte de caractre dramatique, dont un combat formait l&#39;pisode principale</i>. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="456."></a><b>456.</b> Niederle 1926, 53. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="457."></a><b>457.</b> M. Vasmer, <i>Zeilschr. f. slav. Philologie</i> 2, 1925, 540; Ernest Schwarz 1929, 210. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="458."></a><b>458.</b> <i>Sbornik Radova vizantoloshkog instituta</i> 7, 1961, 197-226. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="459."></a><b>459.</b> The Slavic etymology, first suggested by Kotliarevski- (1863, 37-42), has been accepted by Nehring (1917, 17) and Trautmann (1944, 23). Later scholars turned Mommsen's conjecture (<i>Jordanes</i>, index p. 198) that the Slavs borrowed strava from the Goths, into a proved fact. See, <i>e.g.</i>, A. Walde-Hoffmann, <i>Lateinisches etymologisches Wrterbuch</i> (Heidelberg, 1952), <i>s.v.</i> strava. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="460."></a><b>460.</b> Ossetic <i>du<img SRC="g_cv.jpg" height=22 width=12 align=ABSBOTTOM></i>, <i>do<img SRC="g_cv.jpg" height=22 width=12 align=ABSBOTTOM></i> (Markwart 1929, 81; Abaev 1958, 373) is Turkish <i>do</i>g ("in their [i.e., the Turks'] language the funeral customs are called&nbsp;<img SRC="426_1.jpg" height=16 width=42 align=ABSBOTTOM>," Menander, <i>EL</i> 207). </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="461."></a><b>461.</b> Contrary to Altheim's emphatic statement (Altheim and Stiehl 1953, 48), <i>strava</i> has nothing to do with the Bulgarian&nbsp;<img SRC="426_2.jpg" height=16 width=67 align=ABSBOTTOM> in a Byzantine compilation of the tenth century (<i>BNJb</i> 5, 1926, 15, 370). On Slavic <i>zdravica</i> meaning "to your health", see I. Du-chev, <i>Byzantinoslavica</i> 12, 1951, 92, n. 76. In Marco Polo, it occurs as <i>stravitsa</i>. </font> <p><font face="Palatino Linotype"><a NAME="462."></a><b>462.</b> <i>Essais de philologie moderne</i> (Paris, 1951), 189-199; <i>Schluche und Fsser</i> (Bern, 1955), 113-125. Dutch <i>koker</i> became kokor in Russian (<i>Slovar' sovremmennogo russkogo literalurnogo iazyka </i>5, 1132). </font> </body> </html>