Hudud al-'Alam, The Regions of the World
V. Minorsky
 

§§ 43-53 Eastern Europe.

The following list of the principal sources, as well as of the works utilizing Muslim sources on Eastern Europe, may be not unwelcome. For details see notes to single chapters.

I.Kh., passim, see Index; I. Faqīh, 270 ( = I.Kh., 124, but the merchants are called tujjār al-Ṣaqāliba); even the Mashhad MS. of I. Faqīh does not seem to contain any new details on the Rūs, Ṣaqlāb, &c., to judge by A. Z. Validi, in Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1924, pp. 237-48; I. Rusta, 138-48 (Khazar, Burdās, Bulkār, al-Majghariya, al-Ṣaqlabiya, al-Rūsiya); I. Faḍlān , Risāla (quoted and utilized by Yāqūt under Itil, Bāshghurd, Bulghar, Khazar, Khwārism, Rūs, and Wīsū); Mas'ūdī, Murūj, ii, 1-77 (Rūs, Burghar, W.l.nd.riya, Caucasian peoples); the passage on the Slavs edited in Marquart's Streifzüge, 97-101; Mas'ūdī, Tanbīh (Burṭās p. 62; W.l.nd.riya pp. 180-3; Burghar, Ṣaqāliba, Rūs, Sarīr, passim); Iṣṭ., 220-7 (Khazar, al-Sarīr, Burṭās, Bulghār, Rūs, &c.); I.Ḥ., 278-87


426   Commentary   §§ 43-53

(Khazar, Burṭās, Basjirt, Bulghār); [Ibrāhīm b. Wasīf-shāh], L'abrégé des merveilles, tr. Carra de Vaux, 1898 (Slavs, pp. 45-6; Burjān, pp. 123-4); Maq., 360 (Itil, Rūs, Bulghār, Suwār, Khazar — very brief); Gardīzī, 78-126 (Bachanāk, Khazar, Burdās, Bulkār, Majghar, Saqlāb [sic], Rūs, Sarīr, Alān); al-Bakrī, ed. Rosen, SPb., 1878 (Ṣaqālib, Bajanākiya, Khazar, Furdās, Bulkār, Majghariya, Sarīr, Burjān); 'Aufī, Jawāmi' al-ḥikāyāt, part iv, ch. 16, in Barthold, A new Muslim report on the Russians (in Russian), Zap., ix, 1895, 262-7; [the rest of 'Aufī's data on the Khazar, Burdās, Majghariya, Ṣaqlābiyān are an abridgement of I. Rusta; the data on Gurj, Uslān (*al-Lān?), Sarīr, and Darband are very brief, see Br. Mus., Or. 2676, ff. 67-9]; Yāqūt, Itil, i, 112-13, Burṭās, i, 567 [this paragraph refers chiefly not to the Burṭās but to the Bulghārs], Burghar, i, 568 (after Mas'ūdi), Bulghar, i, 722-7, Bāshghurt, i, 468-70, Khazar, ii, 436-40, Khwārizm, ii, 484-5, Rūs, ii, 834-40, Ṣaqlab,iii, 405; Wīsū, i, 34 and iv, 944; Ibn Iyās, in F. Arnold, Chrestomatia Arabica, i, 73-6: Rūs, Bulghār.

Frähn, Veteres memoriae Chasarorum ex Ibn Foszlano, Ibn Haukale et Schems-ed-dino Damascene and De Baschkiris quae memoriae prodita sunt, in Mém. Acad. SPb., t. vī, 1822, pp. 577-620 [separately printed under the title Frähn, De Chasaris excerpta ex scriptoribus arabicis, pars i, 1822, 44 pp., ibid., De Baschkiris]; Frähn, Ibn Foszlans und anderer Araber Berichte über die Russen älterer Zeit, SPb., 1823; Hammer, Sur les origines russes, SPb., 1827; A. C. Mouradja d'Ohsson, Des peuples du Caucase et des pays au nord de la Mer Noire et de la Mer Caspienne dans le 10e siècle, Paris 1828; Frähn, Drei Münzen der Wolga-Bulgharen aus d. X. Jahrhundert, in Mém. Acad. SPb., série vi, t. i, 1832, pp. 171-204; Frähn, Die ältesten arabischen Nachrichten über die Wolga-Bulgharen aus Ibn Fosslans Reiseberichten, in Mém. Acad. SPb., série vi, t. i, 1832, pp. 527-77; Charmoy, Relations de Mas'oudī et d'autres auteurs musulmans sur les anciens Slaves, in Mém. Acad. SPb., série vi, t. ii, livraisons 3 et 4, 1834, pp. 297-408; Frähn, Ibn-Abi-Jakub el-Nadim's Nachricht von der Schrift der Russen im X. Jahrhundert n. Chr., in Mém. Acad. SPb., série vi, t. iii, 1836, pp. 507-30; P. S. Savelyev, Muhammadan Numismatics as related to Russian History (in Russian), SPb., 1846; Defrémery, Fragments de géographes et historiens arabes et persans relatifs aux anciens peuples du Caucase et de la Russie méridionale, in Jour. As., 1849, t. 13, pp. 460-77 (al-Bakrī); Chwolson, Izvestiya o Khazarakh &c. Ibn Dasta [read: Ibn Rusta], SPb., 1869; A. Garkavi (Harkavy), Skazaniya musulmanskikh pisateley o Slav'anakh i Russkikh, SPb., 1870 (Supplement 1871); A. Kunik and Baron V. Rosen, Isvestiya al-Bakrī i drugikh avtorov o Rusi i slav'anakh, SPb., i, 1878, ii, 1903; Dorn, Caspia, Über die Einfälle der alten Russen in Ṭabaristān, in Mém. Acad. SPb., série vii, t. xxiii, no. 1, 1875 (Russian edition of the same work, ibid., t. xxvi, annex 1, 1875); G. Jacob, Welche Handelsartikel bezogen die Araber des Mittelalters aus den nordisch-baltischen Ländern? 2nd ed., Berlin 1891; F. Westberg, Ibrāhīm's-ibn-Ja'kūb's Reisebericht über die Slawenländer aus dem Jahre 965, in Mém. Acad. SPb., série viii, t. iii, no. 4, 1898 (a revised edition in Russian: Kommentariy na zapisku Ibrāhim ibn


§§ 43-53   Eastern Europe   427

Yakuba, SPb., 1903, with a very complete list of literature on Ibrāhīm); Westberg, Beiträge sur Klärung orientalischer Quellen über Osteuropa (Erste Hälfte des Mittelalters), in Bull. Acad. SPb., 1899, t. xi, No. 4, November 1899, pp. 211-45, No. 5, December 1899, pp. 279-314; Barthold, Geografiya Ibn Sa'īda, 1898; Marquart, Streifzüge, 1903, passim; A. A. Spitsn, On the Degree of Trustworthiness of I. Faḍlān 's Risāla (in Russian), in Zap. Imp. Russ. Arch. Obsh., new series xi, 161-6; Baron V. G. Tiesenhausen, In Defense of I. Faḍlān (in Russian), Zap., xiii, pp. 024-032; Baron Rosen, Prolegomena k novomu izdaniyu Ibn-Faḍlāna, in Zap., xv/2, 1904, pp. 39-73; Westberg, K analisu vostochnkh istochnikov o vostochnoy Evrope, in Zhurnal Min. Narodn. Prosv., new series, 1909, xiii, February, pp. 364-412, xiv, March, pp. 1-52; S. M. Seredonin, Istoricheskaya geografiya, posthumous edition, SPb., 1916 (Bulgars, pp. 89-96; Khazars, pp. 97-106; Eastern Slavs, pp. 106-52; Pechenegs, Torks, Polovtsi, pp. 153-96; Finnish peoples, pp. 197-220; Variags, pp. 221-40); P. Smirnov, The Volga route and the ancient Rus' (in Ukrainian), ed. by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev, 1928, 228 pp. (a very interesting work in which the passages from Muslim geographers including the Ḥudūd al-'Ālam have been utilized in translation); A. Seippel, Rerum normannicarum fontes arabici, Oslo, i, 1896 (excerpts from 50 Arabic authors; texts), ii, 1928 (variants); P. K. Kokovtsov, Yevreisko-khazarskaya perepiska v X veke, ed. Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R., 1932 (a critical re-edition of the Hebrew documents on the Khazars). Krachkovsky, On the Preparation of a Corpus of Arabic Sources regarding the History of Central Asia (in Russian), in Zap. Institut. Vostokov. Akademii Nauk USSR., Leningrad, 1932, i, pp. 55-62.
 

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