Hudud al-'Alam, The Regions of the World
V. Minorsky

156   Hudud al-Alam   §§ 41-2

§ 42. Discourse on the Country of Rūm, its Provinces and Towns

East of this country lie Armenia, the Sarīr, and the Alān (al-Lān); south of it, some parts of Syria, of the Rūm Sea, and of Spain; west of it, the Western Ocean; north of it, some Uninhabited Lands (vīrānī) of the North, some parts
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| of the countries of the S
̣aqlāb and Burjā(n) (ba'ḍi ḥudūd-i Ṣaqlāb va ba'ḍi nāḥiyat-i Barjā-st [sic]), and some parts of the Khazar Sea (daryā-yi Khazarān). This country is extremely vast; it abounds in amenities beyond description (bī andāza), and is extremely prosperous. It has many towns, villages, and great provinces, all with extensive fields, running waters, wealth, and troops. In it small lakes (daryāyak-hā), mountains, and very numerous fortresses (ḥiṣār) and castles (qal'a) are found. It produces in great quantities brocades (jāma-yi dībā), sundus-textiles (of silk), maysānī-(textiles?), carpets (ṭanfasa), stockings, and valuable trouser-cords.

The provinces of Rūm are fourteen; three lie behind (az pas) the straits of Constantinople on their western side; and eleven provinces lie east of the straits.

Those that lie westwards are as follows:

1. The first is ṬĀBLĀN in which Constantinople is situated. The latter is the seat of the kings of Rūm and a place of great wealth.

2. The other is MACEDONIA (Maqadūniya). Alexander of Rūm was a native of it. It lies by the Rūm Sea.

3. The third is THRACE (Thrāqiya, spelt: Brāqiya) which lies by the Georgian Sea (daryā-yi Gurz).

As regards the other eleven provinces which lie eastwards of the straits of Constantinople, they bear the following names: 4. THRACESION (spelt: Brqsīs); 5. OPSIKION (spelt: Absyq); 6. OPTIMATON (spelt: Afṭmāṭ); 7. SELEUCIA (Salūqiya); 8. ANATOLICON (Nāṭlīq); 9. BUCCELLARION (spelt: Bqlār); 10. PAPHLAGONIA (Aflakhūniya); 11. CAPPADOCIA (Qabādhaq, spelt: Fyādq); 12. CHARSIANON (Kharshana?); 13. ARMENIACON (Arminyāq); 14. CHALDIA (Khāldiya).

Each of these provinces (themes) is vast and has numerous towns,

§ 42   "The Regions of the World"   157

villages, castles, fortresses, mountains, running waters, and amenities. In each of these provinces lives a commander-in-chief (sipāhsallār) on behalf of the king of Rūm (az ān-i malik al-Rūm), with numerous troops numbering from 3,000 men to 6,000 horse [sic] and (destined) to guard the province (mar nigāh dāshtan-i nāḥiyat rā).

In the days of old cities were numerous in Rūm (andar Rūm skahr-i qadīm andar bisyār būdh, read: andar qadīm ?), but now they have become few. Most of the districts (rustā-hā) are prosperous and pleasant, and have (each) an extremely strong fortress (bāḥīṣārī sakht bisyār ustuvār), on account of the frequency of the raids (tākhtan) which the fighters for the faith (ghāziyān) direct upon them. To each village appertains a castle (qal'a) where in time of flight [they may take shelter]. [1]

And these provinces, with large villages, and whatever there is (in them) of towns, [2] are such as we have represented them and shown on the Map (ṣūrat).

15. GURZ (Georgia?) is also a province of Rum; most of its (population) live on small islands. By (?) the sea of Gurz they have a land (shahr) called Gurz which lies in Rūm on the coast of the said sea. [3] All the customs (akhlāq) of these people resemble exactly and in every respect (rāst ba-hama rūy) those of the people of Rūm (Rūmiyān).

16. BURJĀN, a province with a district (shahr) called Thrace (spelt: B.rqiya); it is a nourishing place, much favoured by nature but having little wealth (khurram va bisyār-ni'mat va kam-khwāsta). Taking it altogether it is steppe and cultivated lands (va dīgar hama ṣaḥrā-st va kisht-u-barz). It is a prosperous place and has running waters. It is a part of Rūm and (its people) pay land-taxes (kharāj) to the king of Rum.

17. CHRISTIANIZED SLAVS (al-Ṣaqāliba al-mutanaṣṣira), a province of Rūm, in which live the Slavs who have become Christians (Ṣaqlābī-yi tarsā gashta). They pay land-taxes (kharāj) to the king of Rūm. They are wealthy (tuvangar) people and their country is pleasant and safe.

18. BULGHARĪ, is the name of a people living on the mountain Bulghārī (qaumī-st bar kūh-i Bulgharī nishinand) to the north-west of Rūm. They are infidels (kāfir). They too are Rūmī, but are

1. Kī andar gurīkhtan. . . . Something omitted by the scribe: *ba-ānjā panā-hand.

2. The text is awkward: the words "villages" and "towns" ought to come in inverted order.

3. Va bīshtar az vay andar jazīra-hā-and khurd. Va andar [sic] daryā-yi *Gurz īshān-ra shahrī-st kī *Gurz khwānand va andar Rūm-ast bar karān-i īn daryā.

158   Hudud al-Alam   §§ 42-3

perpetually at war with the other Rūmīs. These Bulghārī are mountaineers, possessing fields and great numbers of cattle.

This country of Rūm stretches westwards (ba maghrib bikashad) down to the Western Ocean, and its southern side (sūy) marches with Spain. Towards
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| the north it marches with the Uninhabited Lands of the North, and includes some (pāra-ī) deserts. In all the other places of Rūm there are no deserts; on the contrary (illā) cultivated lands (ābādhānī) are everywhere.

19. IFRANJA, a province of Rūm adjoining the Rūm Sea.

20. RŪMIYA (Rome), a town on the coast of this sea, belonging to Ifranja. In the days of old the seat of the kings of Rūm was in this Rūmīya.

21. *B.SKŪN.S (Vascones, Basques), *GH.LJ.SK.S (the people of Jacá?), are two provinces between Ifranja and Spain. The (people) are Christians.

22. BRITANNIA (Bariṭīniya), the last land (shahr) of Rūm on the coast of the Ocean. It is an emporium (bārgāh) of Rūm and Spain.

From the limit of the straits (of Constantinople) down to Spain whatever is on the shore of the Sea of Rūm is called "the coast of Athens" (sāḥil-i Athīnās).

23. YŪNĀN (Greece) was in the days of old a town of this Athens [1] and all the sages and philosophers arose (khāsta) from this region of Athens (nāḥiyat-i A.).

1. Shahrī būd az in Athīnās. Perhaps: *Shahr būd "was the country (belonging) to this (town) of Athens."

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