The language of the Asparukh and KuberBulgars, Vocabulary and grammar

Old Bulgar words preserved in the modern Bulgarian language: ZH -Z - I - J

Modern BulgarianEastern analogies Cluster_user's ottomanparallels
ZHAGA – a (hand) sawClose to the Adig ZHAGA and the Abazin ZHZHVAGA(‘iron harrow’) [RAS, 39]  
ZHEGL– a joke pinDZHG (‘oxyoke’) [ARS, 174]Pashto 
ZHELVA - a tortoiseJELIW (‘a cover’) [GASK, 363]Wakhi 
ZHERKA – the old name of the water-mills,preserved in Sevlievo and Trnovo districtsSHERG (‘water-mill’) from JAR (‘a stone’) [IJa,203] and JEREW (‘to press, to crush’) [GASK, 363]Ishkashimi,Wakhi 
ZHIVOT – life (noun). The Bulgarian wordfor ‘life’ as opposed to the common Slavic ZHIZN’DZHIWAK, DZWAK (‘a life’) [ARS,210-220; MGA; etc.]Pashto 
ZHIZLAK – a hornet(dial.) (Dobrudzha)ZIGOLOG (‘a hornet’)[IJa, 254]  

CHIZH (‘a hornet’) [ChRS]

ZHIMI BOGA! – ‘My God!’ (dial.) (in thedistrict of Okhrid, etc.)Compare to the Talish CHIMI (‘my’) [TRS,290]. Taking into account that the old word for ‘God’ in the Pamirswas BAGA (with the ancient ending –A, characteristic for Sanskrit and Avestan),the whole expression ZHIMI BOGA! can be regarded as being brought by theold Bulgars.Talish 
ZHULJU – weak, feeble manDZMULA (‘weak, feeble’) [ARS,1970, MGA]  

From this stem is also the Bulgarian word OSHMULEN (‘low-spirited’)

Modern BulgarianEastern analogies Cluster_user's ottomanparallels
ZAGARIJA – atype of wheat; ZAKHIRE, ZAJRE – a general word for all typesgrainsZKHGJR(‘millet’), ZGKHARA (‘bread of millet’) [ARS, 294-295]  

In Chuvash (Middle Volga) the same word is preserved as CAKHAR (SAKHAR),a legacy from the Volga Bulgars. 

Probably these words were derived from the Pamirian word for ‘reddish’– ZANGOR, leading to ZANGOR for ‘millet’. 

Going along this line, to the Bulgarian word for ‘wheat’ – ZHITO, correspondsthe Pamirian ZHIT (‘yellow’). That is, ZHITO was derived from the yellowcolour of the wheat grains.


turk. zag~are ("millet", rare, 19th cent. redhouse)  < pers.zag~a:re "millet" 


turk. zahi^re (stored grain) < `ar. *dh*axi^ra(t) (provisions)

the chuvash word is interesting but I have been unable to find it. thechuvash word given for millet is a turkic one, cognate  to turkishdarI.

ZALK– a bite, mouthfulCompare to the Pamirian ZAL (‘to fill’)Pamirian 
ZAMAN – an epochSimilar in Sarikoli [SRS, 220]Sarikoliturk. zaman "epoch, time"< `ar. zama:n
ZARAN – morningA common Pamirian word – ZAAR, ZAARE [GASK,444; etc.]Wakhi 
ZAKHARLACHEN (in the district of Razgrad),ZAKHIRACHE (in the district of Trnovo)– weak, illZAKHER (‘weak, feeble’) [ARS,299]Pashto 
ZAKHUT – a lavatory in the district of(Razgrad), ZAKHUTJAM – to throw (in the districts of Chirpan, Shumen)ZKHOT (‘alavatory’) [TRS, 105]Talish 
ZER – really, indeed. In expressions"ima zer, taka zer"Compare to the Pashto DZER (‘much, stressed’)[ARS, 279]Pashto 
ZID – wall, withderivatives ZIDAR (‘a mason’), ZIDAM (‘to build’), ZIDARIJA(‘masonry’). Two words of this stem are attested in medieval sources –Z’DCHII (‘a builder’) and ZITKOI(‘a fortified district’)The oldest analogy isthe Sumerian ZID (‘a barrier’), the Urartian SID (‘to build’). 

ZID (‘a barrier’) [LRS, 129]

ZIMA – a spleen(dial.)ZILIZ (‘a spleen’) [GI,1978], ZJL-ZAM in Gukhul. 

ZEKHMAJ (‘a bleeding area, a wound’) [DE, 348]

ZOB – grain, grain provender ZOB [ARS], ZUOW [DE,351], ZAW [SRS, 255] – ‘grain, wheat’Jazguljami,Sarikoli 
ZURLA – a snout, muzzle of pigZURLA (‘a swearing, curse’) [ARS,298]Pashto 
ZZNA– to shiver, to shake with coldCompare to the ChechenZU’Z (‘shivering’), ZU’ZANA 

Talish ZJZ (‘fear, terror’) [TRS,106] 

Wakhi ZJSK (‘to shiver with cold’)[GASK, 365]

ZM– a snake (dial.)SHKHJM(‘grass-snake’) [RAS, 523]EasternCaucasian 
ZNZA– miserd, niggard ZND (‘torob’) [GASK, 517]Wakhi 
Modern BulgarianEastern analogies Cluster_user's ottomanparallels
ILIGA – in thechildren’s game ILIGA-PILIGA (a game with ten fingers)From the old Bulgarword ELIGA (‘ten’, noun). As in the Pamirs and in the Eastern CaucasusIL means ‘many’, while PELG is ‘finger’ in the Eastern Caucasus, ILIGA-PILIGAsimply means ‘ten fingers’Pamirian
INDRISHE – geraniumMost probably from the Pamirian stem ENDAR (‘inner,home’). Thus INDRISHE – ‘a home flower’.Pamirian 
IKHU – an exclamation of happinessIK! IK! (‘THIS! THIS WAY!) [LRS,135]Lezgin 
IJA – one’s husband’ssister (in the district of Vrshec)JIJ (‘brother-in-law’)[AG, 390]  

IJA (‘one’s husband’s sister’) [TRS, 110]

JOROKLICA – in expressionsuch as "Nevestice, joroklice" ("Oh, you bride, you joroklica"), "Nevestice,oruglice", etc. The Bulgarian etymological dictionary [BER,II, 108] correctly pointed to the similarity with JORUGVA (KHORUGVA)(‘a gonfalon’), which itself is unclear. From the Mundzhani, also Persian,JORO (‘a prayer to God’) [AG, 390], also YO-RAP (‘acall to God, a promise before God’) [GASK, 510]
Mundzhani, Wakhi
YORO < YO RAP< `ar. (ya: rabb "o lord!"), ya: rabbi "o my lord!"
JOSA, JOSI – a general name ofthe sheep’s offsprings JOS (‘young animals, lambs’) [IJa,252; GASK, 511; etc.]Ishkashimi,Wakhi 
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