The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar

Old Bulgar words preserved in the modern Bulgarian language: A - B - V

Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
AZ – I , me AZ (‘I’) is common to the Pamirian languages – Ishkashimi, Sarikoli, Roshov, Bartang, Khufi. 

Compare also to AZ in Talish.

AKO – if AKA, AGA, AGAR (‘if’) in Ishkashimi, Tadzhik, Mundzhani, Sarikoli, etc. Pamirian  
AMI – but, and, why, well AME, ME (‘this, such’) [IJa, AG, 332]

ANI (‘besides’)

Ishkashimi, Mundzhani turk. ama "but" < `ar. 'amma: (particle for contrast)
ANTERIJA – a padded jacket ANDRJKA (‘a short garment for men’) [IJa, 180; DE, 84-85] from the Pamirian stem ANDAR (‘inner, under’) Ishkashimi, Jazguljami turk. entari, < also `anteri^, < `ar. `antariyya(t) < sans. antariya 

`anteriyya(t) is folk etymology from `antar an arab romance hero. 

pamiri word is probably native.

Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
BAJ – an address to older people – an older bother, uncle BAJ (‘an uncle’) [AG, 283]

BJ (‘a brother’) [TRS, 38]

BAMBALO – a lump of mud BAMBAL – a garbage, an empty wheat-ear [ARS, 75] Pashto  
BANKO, BRAJNO, sometimes BRALE – an address to o.'s brother BRAJ, BRA (‘an address to a brother’) [IJa, 187] Ishkashimi  
BATE (BACHO, BAKO) – an address to an older brother. Attested as early as the VII c. AD in the name of the oldest son of khan Kubrat – Bat-Bajan BAT, BACH (‘an older brother’) [GASK, 303] from the Sanskrit PAT (‘a honour, a respect’) Wakhi  
BAFTA (PAFTA) – a decoration on the women’s belts, a belt buckle BAFTA (‘a decoration, aiglets’) [LRS, 60] Lezgin turk. pafta (metal decoration on a horse or other) < pers. ba:fte
BASHTA – a father Peculiar here is that this word is of masculine gender, yet it ends in -A, something very uncharacteristic for Bulgarian. But it can be compared to the Proto-Bulgarian title KANA SJUBIGI, KANA also ending in -A and being of masculine gender. Other similar examples are BOILA, ZERA. This shows that in Proto-Bulgarian the ending -A was not unusual for words of masculine gender, unlike the Slavic l-s, where it forms words of feminine gender. It is not characteristic for the Turkic l-s either. The only Turkic parallel of this type is the word PASHA, but it is not a proper Turkic word but a derivative of the Persian PAD-I-SHAH. Sanskrit and Avestan are the only l-s using the ending -A for words of masculine gender. The closet parallel of the Bulgarian BASHTA is the Pamirian BAKSHTA. [GASK, 302] Pamirian  
BEL – a straight spade BEL is common to the Pamirian as well as Talish and Persian [ARS, TRS, PRS]

In the Pamirs it also occurs as a diminutive BELCHA (‘a small spade’).

Talish turk bel < pers. bel
BELEG – a scar, a mark In the Pamirs this word means ‘a mark’. BELAK, for example, is the sign given by the bridegroom to the bride as an expression of his feelings. 

BELEK (‘a sign’) – in the northern Georgian peoples – Svans, Khevsurs, Pshavs.

Pamirian turkic belgu", mong. belge. "sign, mark" *bel signifies "to be 
bil= "to know" chuvash palla~
BELEZHA – to mark A derivative from BELEG.    
BELUVIK – a monument (Volga Bulgaria) From the same origin as BELEG   belu"wik, belu":k 
later belu"yi, belwi, belu"wi (with possesive suffix -i) 
BELCHUG – a metal ring put in the swine’s snout From the Alanian BJL (‘a shout, a muzzle’) and CHUG (‘a ring’) [ORS].   probably the meaning "handcuffs" and the like are better. perhaps from turkic bilek "wrist" 
from another source: "(now replaced by Slavic belezitzi, or beleznitzi)  - handcuff" 
belezitzi from common turkic bilezik < bilek yu"zu"k (yu"zu"k = ring)
BENT – a dam, a weir BEND (‘a dam, a weir’) [RPDS, 478] from the Indo-Iranian verb BAND – ‘to bind, to bar, to obstruct’. Pamirian turk. bent < pers. bend 
BLAGATKI – good (adj.) BELOGAT (‘perfect’) [GASK, 313] Wakhi turk. bala^gat "eloquence" < `ar. bala:g~a(t) "eloquence" wakhi
BLAGUNA – a type of sweet pear 

BLAGUN – a sycamore, a type of oak

BLAGUND (‘a pear-type tree’) [ARS, 73]

BLANG (‘an evergreen tree’) from BLANG – ‘green’

BLANAV – tasteless, saltless BLANG (‘fresh, saltless’) [ARS, 74]

The -AV ending, which is usually found in adjectives of old Bulgar origin, such as KHUBAV, SHTURAV, GIZDAV, etc., also supports this interpretation.

BODKA – a small coin BOTKJ (‘a small golden coin’) [ARS, 58] Pashto  
BOLJARIN – a noble From the old Bulgar BOILA, or more exactly – from its plural form BOILAR, and the suffix -IN, which is characteristic for other old words: KHLOBRIN, ESTROGIN, etc.   boyla (< tu"rku"t? < iranian?) + -r (oghur plural or collective, 
instead of later -lar, collective -z) + -in 
BORA – the name of one unpleasant wind in the Stara planina mountains. BURA (‘a mischief’), BORI [ARS, 79] Pashto cl. greek boreas, venet. bora, turk. bora 

see also sinor Denis Sinor Studia Orientalia 47, 1977 as well as a. tietze "the lingua franca in the levant ..."

BORIKA – a slender pine-tree BERIK (‘a slender tree’) [GASK, 314] Wakhi  
BOTUSHI – boots From BUT (‘a boot’) [GASK, 31] and the old Bulgar ending for plural forms –SHI, also found in words such as TULSHI (‘helmets’), HUMSHI (‘armour’). Wakhi romanian botu$i < lat. 

NB french botte < turk. "bot" 

for the doubters, pashto has in fact bu:t. , with the retroflex /t./ that pashto and indian languages use to render the english /alveolar t/ (the other t is dental). thus pashto (the source of wakhi) borrowed the word from english.

BRANTIJA – a broken thing or a unfit person BRAND (‘a vicious, indecent person’) [ARS, 66] Pashto  
BRMBAR (dial. BUMBAR) – a beetle, a bug BUMBAR, BAMBJRA (‘a beetle’) [ARS, 75]

It is also BUMBAR (‘a beetle’) in the Eastern Caucasus [ChRS]

The oldest analogy is the Sanskrit BRAMARA (‘a beetle’).

BRST – cut tree branches with leaves for cattle’s feeder BRES (‘a cut piece’) [GASK, 490] Wakhi  
BRTVJA – to chatter; a derivative form is BRTVEZH (‘an idle talk, a chatter’) BJRT (‘to  jabber, to chatter’) [TRS, 37] Talish  
BUBA – a silkworm; a little bug BOBAN (mulberry branches, used for feeding silkworms) – in the Khufi, Roshov l-s (Pamirian) Pamirian greek  bombyks 

under discussion.

BOBONKI, BUBONKI – a mulberry-tree (used in the district of Razgrad) From BOBAN, see above.    
BUBA – a bugbear, a bogy. In the expression ‘Buba lazi, buba lazi’ used for frightening little children. BOBA (‘a bugbear, a monster’) [ChRS, 82] Chechen  
BUZA – a cheek  Similar to the Persian BUS in the expression BUS-GH (‘a face’) 

PUZ, PJZ (‘a lip’) [SH, 32]

Eastern Caucasian
BUKANKI – soldier’s boots (in Dobrudzha) BUKANA (‘hard, stiff’) [ChRS, 60-75] Chechen  
BUKAR – a boar (dial.) BUK, BUKA (‘a swine’) [SH, 27] – Udin, Tabasaran, Archin in the Eastern Caucasus Eastern Caucasian  
BULGUR – groats, grits BALGUR (‘groats, croup’) [RPDS, 311] Pamirian turk. bulgur < pers. bulg~ur
BULKA – a bride WULA (‘a woman, a wife’) [AG, 376] Mundzhani old turkish (15th cent.) bula "mistress of the house," elder 
sister (NB turk. abla), also "uncle's wife" (sami) 

some meanings may have been indfluenced by ottm. turk. bu'u^le < `ar bu`u:la(t) (pl. of ba`l "master" "husband" etc.) 

NB bulg. bula "turkish woman"

BUMBAK – cotton (noun) (dial.) PUMBA (‘cotton’) [ARS, 116] Pashto turk. pamuk, variant (ott., dial.) panbuk, pambuk < turkic < iran. (clauson)
BUN – a root (in the district of Bansko) BUN (‘a root’) [ARS, 77] Pashto  
BUNAK – a booby, a noodle BUNAR (‘a blind man’) [ARS, 76] Pashto turk. bunak (senile), older bu*ng*aq
BUNISHTE – a dumping ground, a dunghill BUN (‘a bottom, a pit’) [IJa, 188; TRS, 279] + -ISHTE, like in KAPISHTE 

BUNIAD (‘unfit, filthy’) [ARS, 77]

Ishkashimi, Talish
BUR – limestone, chalk (in the names of rocky locations – Burel, Burieva, etc.) BUR (‘limestone’) [SRS, 266] Sarikoli  
BUREN – a weed  Compare to the Persian BURAN (‘quickly growing plant’) and the Talish BUREN. [PRS, 1; LPS, 66]   turk. buran "that which twists" 
BURENIJA – a soup of weeds (dial.) See BUREN above.   turk. borani^, bu^ra^ni^  < pers. bu:ra:ni: 
(attributed to buran, a wife of a caliph)
BURKI – moustaches (in the expression MURKI BURKI – "black moustaches") BRET (‘moustaches’) [ARS, 67]

BUKE (‘the moustaches and the beard’) [TRS, 39]

BUSENICA – a straw hut BUS (‘a straw’) [ARS, 89] Pashto  
BUTAM – to push Compare to the Parthian BUTAN (‘to throw down, to bring down’) [SIJa, 237]    
BUKHAL – an owl Common to Persia – as BUF, to the Pamirs – as BU, and the Eastern Caucasus – as BUKHIA    
BUCHA – to prick, to stick, to pin WUC (‘an edge, a sharp blade’) [GASK, 490] Wakhi  
BBREK – a kidney BVRA (‘a kidney’) [SH, 41] Eastern Caucasian turk. bo"brek, older bo"g~rek (turkic) 

russian bubrek shows a wider distribution and potentially older borrowing.

BDNE – a type of pot BDNAJ (‘a pot’) [ARS, 61]

BDNK (‘a small pot’) [IJa, 187]

Pashto, Ishkashimi
BRDUCHE –a small container for water BARDAK (‘a small container for water’) [TRS, 24] Talish turk. bardak (probably turkic, < bart)
BRKAM – to get wrong BURKU (‘blind’) [SH, 110] Eastern Caucasian  
BRCHA – to wrinkle, to ripple; hence BRCHKA – a wrinkle, a furrow; a crease BARCH (‘to wrinkle, to ripple’) [ChRS, 56] Chechen  
BKH – a call for a fight, in the expression "khajde na BKH". BKHS (‘a hatred’) [IJa] Ishkashimi  
BKHTJA SE – to labour, to toil away BOKHTJA (‘to torment oneself, to suffer’) [ARS] Pashto  

Modern Bulgarian Eastern analogies   Cluster_user's ottoman parallels
VADA – a ditch, a channel  WAD, WOD (‘a ditch, a channel’) [SRS, 258; GASK, 489; etc.] Sarikoli, Wakhi  
VADJA – to pull out WADA (‘to pull out’) [ARS, 520] Pashto  
VAPCVAM – to paint Compare to the Sarikoli WABEIS [SRS, 190] Sarikoli  
VARE – a forewarning in the expressions "lele vare", "lele vare, Mecano" in folk songs, etc. VARA (‘Be careful! Don’t!’) [ChRS, 85] Chechen  
VEZHDA – an eyebrow WREZA (‘an eyebrow’) [ARS; AG, 372] Pashto, Mundzhani  
VEJKA – a small branch, a twig WEKH (‘a twig’) [IJa, 244] Ishkashimi  
VERTEP – a brothel, a haunt WERTAB (‘a gathering place for loafers’) [DE, 295] Jazguljami  
VECHE - already Compare to the Pamirian WEZ [DE, 281] Jazguljami  
VESHTICA – a witch WAASHT (‘a nightmare, a bag ghost’) [IJa, 284] Ishkashimi  
VIK – a cry Compare to the Persian WIK (‘a noise’)    
VIRA – in the expression "MAJNA I VIRA" with which the loaders lift heavy loads. WIRA (‘a load’) [AG, 370] Mundzhani  
VIREJA – to grow, to thrive Quite an old word. Compare it to the Dardic UJIR – life (noun), UJIRULLA – live, vital Dardic  
VRJAVA – an uproar, a racket WERRE (‘an uproar’) [TRS, 43] Talish  
VGAREC – a parasitic caterpillar on beans and wheat WINGHARO (‘a caterpillar’) [AG, 375] Mundzhani  
VDK – a large ritual sheaf with the form of a human, left in the field in order to bring rich crops WADOK (‘a ritual puppet’) [IJa, 287]

WNDK (‘a big rope for binding sheaves’) [IJa, 283]

VZGECH – a folk word, used to ridicule dreamers and liars WZGESHT (‘long, with a tail’) [DE, 285] Jazguljami turk. expression vaz gec, = "abandon (it), give up" vaz < prob. pers. ba:z "behind, alone etc." 
gec,= to pass
VZGLAVNICA – a pillow Although it has a clear Slavic meaning, in the Pamirs there are also similar words for pillow: BALISH and WZGAR [IJa, DE, 289 and 335] Ishkashimi, Jazguljami  
VZHE – a rope The common Slavic name for 'a rope' is UZI. But there is a Pamirian word - WZH (‘a rope’) [GASK, 493; TRS, 276], which is closer to the Bulgarian one. Talish
VRVJA – to go, to walk Compare to the Sogdian WAR (‘to walk’) and the Dardic PARA, WALRA. 
VURDALAK – a vampire
Probably from WARAN (‘a dragon’) 

Also the Talish WRME (‘unholy force’) [TRS, 48]

VRSHEJA – to thresh, to frail Although it is similar to the Slavic VERSHIT’, there is also the Pamirian word FRSHAJ (‘to thresh sheaves, to separate the grain with a stick’) [SRS, 243]
VTK – a weft, a woof The common Slavic variant of this word is UTOK. But in the Pamirs it sounds as WD [IJa, 244; DE]. As in the case of VZHE, the Pamirian variant is closer to the Bulgarian word. Ishkashimi, Jazguljami  
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